Automatic retry settings for batch jobs has been fully released for D365 F&O with version 10.0.18 which went General Availability as of April 16 2021.
With this feature there is a new interface called BatchRetryable. This interface is quite simplistic but basically allows you to implement a new method called IsRetryable. This method will be called when the batch system encounters a transient error. This method simply returns true or false to determine if the job should retry.